Monday, September 25, 2017

[PaleoMammalogy • 2017] Inticetus vertizi • A New Odontocete (Toothed Cetacean) from the Early Miocene of Peru Expands the Morphological Disparity of Extinct Heterodont Dolphins

Inticetus vertizi
Lambert, de Muizon, Malinverno, Celma, Urbina & Bianucci, 2017

A key step in the evolutionary history of Odontoceti (echolocating toothed cetaceans) is the transition from the ancestral heterodont condition – characterized by the presence of double-rooted cheek teeth bearing accessory denticles – to the homodont dentition displayed by most extant odontocete species. During the last few decades, new finds and the reassessment of specimens in collections revealed an increased morphological disparity amongst the Oligo–Miocene heterodont odontocetes. Based on a partly articulated skeleton from late Early Miocene (Burdigalian, 18.8–18.0 Ma) beds of the Chilcatay Formation (Pisco Basin, Peru), we describe a new genus and species of heterodont odontocete, Inticetus vertizi, in the new family Inticetidae. This large dolphin is characterized by, amongst other things, a long and robust rostrum bearing at least 18 teeth per quadrant; the absence of procumbent anterior teeth; many large, broad-based accessory denticles in double-rooted posterior cheek teeth; a reduced ornament of dental crowns; the styliform process of the jugal being markedly robust; a large fovea epitubaria on the periotic, with a correspondingly voluminous accessory ossicle of the tympanic bulla; and a shortened tuberculum of the malleus. Phylogenetic analyses (with and without molecular constraint; with and without down-weighting of homoplastic characters) yielded contrasting results, with Inticetus falling either as a stem Odontoceti or as an early branching member of a large Platanistoidea clade. With its large size, robust rostrum and unusual dental morphology, and the absence of conspicuous tooth wear, Inticetus increases the morphological and ecological disparity of Late Oligocene–Early Miocene heterodont odontocetes. Finally, this new taxon calls for caution when attempting to identify isolated cetacean cheek teeth, even at the suborder level.
Keywords: Cetacea, Odontoceti, heterodont, Miocene, Burdigalian, Peru

Figure 4. Cranium and mandibles of Inticetus vertizi, MUSM 1980 (holotype). A, left lateral view; B, corresponding explanatory line drawing. Scale bar = 200 mm.

Figure 17. Cranium and mandibles of Inticetus vertizi, MUSM 1980 (holotype). A, detail of the posterior part of the right lower quadrant including cheek teeth C8–12, in medial view. 

Systematic palaeontology

Order Cetacea Brisson, 1762
Pelagiceti Uhen, 2008a
Neoceti Fordyce & Muizon, 2001
Suborder Odontoceti Flower, 1867

Family Inticetidae fam. nov.
Type genus. Inticetus gen. nov.

 Genus Inticetus gen. nov.
Type species. Inticetus vertizi sp. nov.
Derivation of name. From Inti, the sun deity of the Inca Empire, and cetus, whale in Latin, for the typical, subcircular and ray-like arrangement of accessory denticles in posterior cheek teeth of MUSM 1980, reminiscent of artistic reconstructions of the rising sun.

 Inticetus vertizi sp. nov.

Derivation of name. Honouring the discoverer of the holotype MUSM 1980, the Peruvian artist Álvaro Suárez Vértiz.

Olivier Lambert, Christian de Muizon, Elisa Malinverno, Claudio Di Celma, Mario Urbina and Giovanni Bianucci. 2017. A New Odontocete (Toothed Cetacean) from the Early Miocene of Peru Expands the Morphological Disparity of Extinct Heterodont Dolphins. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. DOI:  10.1080/14772019.2017.1359689

[Herpetology • 2017] A Taxonomic Revision of the Philautus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) of Sumatra with the Description of Four New Species; P. amabilis, P. polymorphus, P. thamyridion & P. ventrimaculatus

Philautus amabilis, P. thamyridion & P. ventrimaculatus
Wost, Riyanto, Hamidy, Kurniawan, Smith & Harvey, 2017 

This paper is the first taxonomic treatment of Sumatran Philautus since the early 20th century. We redescribe P. cornutus and P. petersi from new specimens, restrict P. petersi to Great Natuna Island, and reinstate the name P. larutensis for the populations on Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, and Sumatra. We then synonymize P. similis with P. larutensis. We report Sumatran populations of P. kerangae and P. refugii, two species previously thought to be endemic to Borneo and discuss the presence of P. aurifasciatus on the island. We describe four new species of Philautus collected during large-scale herpetological surveys of Sumatra between 2013 and 2015 and propose a hypothesis of their relationship to the other Sunda Shelf Philautus on the basis of 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid sequences. Additionally, we provide a key to the Philautus of Sumatra. In the course of this work we transfer P. vittiger from Java to the genus Chiromantis.

Keywords: Anuran taxonomy, Biodiversity, Biogeography, Sunda Shelf

Philautus amabilis, P. polymorphus, P. thamyridion & P. ventrimaculatus

Wost, Riyanto, Hamidy, Kurniawan, Smith & Harvey, 2017

 Previously Described Species 

• Philautus cornutus (Boulenger 1920)
• Philautus kerangae Dring 1987
• Philautus larutensis (Boulenger 1900)  
• Philautus petersi (Boulenger 1900) 
• Philautus refugii Inger and Stuebing 1996

New Species 

FIG. 10.—Philautus amabilis. MZB.Amph.26879, holotype, male, 20.79 mm snout–vent length (SVL), Bur Ni Telong Aceh (A and B). MZB.Amph.26887, female, 22.46 mm SVL, Gunung Marapi, Bengkulu (C and D). UTA-A 63816, male, 20.64 mm SVL, Gunung Sibuatan, Sumatera Utara (E and F).

• Philautus amabilis sp. nov.

Etymology.—The name amabilis is a masculine adjective from Latin meaning lovely. It is an apt description of this charming species.

FIG. 11.—Philautus polymorphus. MZB.Amph.26789, holotype, male 25.30 mm snout–vent length (SVL), Gunung Patah, Sumatera Selatan (A). MZB.Amph.26755, female, 25.89 mm SVL, Gunung Kerinci, Jambi (B). UTA-A 63953, female 28.93 mm SVL, Gunung Dempo, Sumatera Selatan (C). UTAA 63935, male, 21.28 mm SVL, Sumatera Barat Province, Gunung Marapi (D). MZB.Amph.26814, female, 26.04 mm SVL, Bukit Kaba, Bengkulu (E). UTAA 63909, female, 23.02 mm SVL, Gunung Daun, Bengkulu (F).

• Philautus polymorphus sp. nov.

Etymology.—The name polymorphus is a masculine adjective derived from the Greek words poly, meaning many, and morph, meaning shape or form. The name refers to the high levels of phenotypic variation displayed in this species.

FIG. 12.—Philautus thamyridion. MZB.Amph.26763, holotype, male 17.88 mm, Gunung Pesawaran, Lampung (A and B). UTA-A 63987, paratype, female, 19.82 mm snout–vent length (SVL), Gunung Pesawaran, Lampung (C). UTA-A 63976, female, 19.91 mm SVL, Gunung Daun, Bengkulu (D). MZB.Amph.26796, male, 17.37 mm SVL Gunung Patah, Sumatera Selatan (E). UTA-A 63982, male, 15.42 mm SVL, vicinity of Ngarip, Lampung, showing black spot surrounding vent and black coloration on inferior surface of tarsus (F).

• Philautus thamyridion sp. nov. 

Etymology.—The new name, thamyridion, is a masculine noun in apposition and is a diminutive of the proper name Thamyris, a boastful singer of Greek mythology. The name refers to this species’ small size and loud distinctive call.

FIG. 13.—Philautus ventrimaculatus. MZB.Amph.26815, holotype, female, 21.61 mm snout–vent length (SVL), Gunung Dempo, Sumatera Selatan (A and B). UTA-A 63882, paratype, female, 21.22 mm SVL, Gunung Dempo, Sumatera Selatan (C and D). UTA-A 63873, female, 16.87 mm SVL, Gunung Patah, Sumatera Selatan (E and F).  

• Philautus ventrimaculatus sp. nov. 

Etymology.—The specific name ventrimaculatus is a masculine adjective derived from the latin words venter, referring the stomach, and macula, meaning spot. The name is in reference to the distinctive pattern on the venter of this species.

Elijah Wost, Awal Riyanto, Amir Hamidy, Nia Kurniawan, Eric N. Smith and Michael B. Harvey. 2017. A Taxonomic Revision of the Philautus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) of Sumatra with the Description of Four New Species. Herpetological Monographs. 31(1); 70-113.  DOI: 10.1655/HERPMONOGRAPHS-D-16-00007 


Specimens of the newly described species — Philautus amabilis, Philautus polymorphus, Philautus thamyridion and Philautus ventrimaculatus — were collected from 2013 to 2015 in jungles over 1,000 meters above sea level.
Four new toads discovered in Sumatra   @Mongabay

[Hexapoda • 2017] Turkmenocampa mirabilis • A Striking New Genus and Species of Troglobitic Campodeidae (Diplura) from Central Asia

Turkmenocampa mirabilis Sendra & Stoev, 2017 

A striking new genus and species of Campodeidae (Diplura), Turkmenocampa mirabilis Sendra & Stoev, gen.n., sp.n., found in Kaptarhana cave in Eastern Turkmenistan is described. This represents the first record of Diplura from Central Asia and also the first terrestrial troglobiont found in Turkmenistan. The new taxon shows several unique characters such as the lack of crests on the telotarsus, the presence of a side-shoot process and the shape of barbs on the ventral side of the laminar telotarsal processes hitherto unknown in other members of this family. Although T. mirabilis is tentatively placed in the subfamily Plusiocampinae, its true affinities remain uncertain. The new finding provides further support to the importance of Kaptarhana as a refuge for a number of endemic invertebrates.

Keywords: Turkmenistan, Koytentag Mountain, Turkmenocampa mirabilis, identification key, Plusiocampinae, cave fauna

Figures 1–2. Turkmenocampa mirabilis Sendra & Stoev, sp. n.
 1 Dorsal view of the frontal process and right side of the head, holotype 2 Head, ventral view, E23 female paratype. Scale bars: 0.2 mm.

A two-pronged bristletail of the family Campodeidae.
photo: Alberto Sendra

Turkmenocampa Sendra & Stoev, gen. n.

 Type species: Turkmenocampa mirabilis Sendra & Stoev, sp. n.

Etymology: Turkmenocampa is a composite name comprising “Turkmeno”-referring to the type locality and the suffix ‘-campa’ traditionally used in Campodeidae taxonomy. Gender: feminine.

Turkmenocampa mirabilis Sendra & Stoev, sp. n.

Etymology: mirabilis’ is a Latin adjective meaning “unusual, amazing, wonderful, remarkable”. The specific epithet refers to the unique micro-sensilla in the cupuliform organ which resemble sponges and micro-corals.

Habitat: Although Turkmenocampa mirabilis has so far been found only in the larger gallery of the cave, some 200–250 m inside the cave, it might well be that it also inhabits the other main passage of the cave. The species is a troglobiont, all records deriving from the aphotic zone of the cave. No specimens were however observed during the exploration of the cave, those that were trapped being found in humid locations, rich in guano.

Entrance of the cave Kaptarhana, Lebap Province, Eastern Turkmenistan.
photo: Aleksandr Degtyarev

 Alberto Sendra, Boris Sket and Pavel Stoev. 2017. A Striking New Genus and Species of Troglobitic Campodeidae (Diplura) from Central Asia.  Subterranean Biology. 23; 47-68.  DOI:  10.3897/subtbiol.23.14631
Strange troglodyte species found in Turkmenistan cave ข้อมูลจาก @upi


[Ichthyology • 2017] Pomacentrus flavioculus • A New Species of Damselfish (Teleostei: Pomacentridae) from Fiji and Tonga

Pomacentrus flavioculus
Allen, Erdmann & Pertiwi, 2017


Pomacentrus flavioculus n. sp. is described on the basis of 140 specimens, 17.1–86.8 mm SL, from Fiji and Tonga in the South Pacific Ocean. The new species was formerly identified as Pomacentrus imitator (Whitley, 1964), which now appears to be restricted to the Coral Sea. The new species clearly differs from P. imitator on the basis of several color-pattern features, including a bright yellow ring that encircles the pupil, a more uniform body color (vs. contrasting pale scale centers and dark scale margins), a yellowish caudal fin (vs. whitish), and a small orange marking immediately above the large black spot that covers the pectoral-fin base (absent in P. imitator). Although meristic and morphological features are broadly similar, P. flavioculus has a strong mode of 14 anal-fin rays vs. 15 in P. imitator. Additionally, P. flavioculus usually has a greater preanal distance and almost always has a longer pelvic-fin spine. A phylogenetic analysis of concatenated mtDNA sequences shows the new species is 8.4% divergent (average pairwise distance) from its nearest relatives and is part of the broad Pomacentrus philippinus species complex.

Figure 1. Pomacentrus flavioculus, Lau Archipelago, Fiji, underwater photographs:
A) approx. 70 mm SL, B) approx. 55 mm SL, C) subadult, approx. 45 mm SL, D) juvenile, approx. 20 mm SL (G.R. Allen).

Pomacentrus flavioculus, n. sp. 
Yelloweye Damselfish

Etymology. The new species is named flavioculus (Latin: yellow eye) with reference to the diagnostic yellow ring that encircles the pupil.

Distribution. The new species is known only from Fiji and Tonga (Fig. 3), where it is commonly encountered in depths of about 4–30 m. It occurs on both outer reefs and in lagoons, usually adjacent to steep coral formations with abundant ledges and overhangs.

Gerald R. Allen, Mark V. Erdmann and P.D. Pertiwi. 2017. Pomacentrus flavioculus, A New Species of Damselfish from Fiji and Tonga (Teleostei: Pomacentridae). Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation. 28, 22–33.  DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.896910

[Crustacea • 2017] Diogenes heteropsammicola • A New Species of Hermit Crab (Decapoda, Anomura, Diogenidae) Replaces A Mutualistic Sipunculan in A Walking Coral Symbiosis

 Diogenes heteropsammicola 
 Igawa & Kato, 2017


Symbiont shift is rare in obligate mutualisms because both the partners are reciprocally dependent on and specialized to each other. In the obligate accommodation–transportation mutualism between walking corals and sipunculans, however, an unusual saltatory symbiont shift was discovered. In shallow waters of southern Japan, an undescribed hermit crab species was found living in corallums of solitary scleractinian corals of the genera Heterocyathus and Heteropsammia, replacing the usual sipunculan symbiont. We described the hermit crab as a new species Diogenes heteropsammicola (Decapoda, Anomura, Diogenidae), and explored its association with the walking corals. This hermit crab species obligately inhabits the coiled cavity of the corals, and was easily distinguished from other congeneric species by the exceedingly slender chelipeds and ambulatory legs, and the symmetrical telson. Observations of behavior in aquaria showed that the new hermit crab, like the sipunculan, carries the host coral and prevents the coral from being buried. This is an interesting case in which an organism phylogenetically distant from Sipuncula takes over the symbiotic role in association with a walking coral. The hermit crab species is unique in that its lodging is a living solitary coral that grows with the hermit crab in an accommodation–transportation mutualism.

Fig 6. Diogenes heteropsammicola sp. nov. in life. A, an individual in an aquarium, carrying the coral. 

Fig 6. Diogenes heteropsammicola sp. nov. in life. B, an individual removed from its host coral. Scale bar: 1 mm.

Taxonomic account
Genus Diogenes Dana, 1851

Diogenes heteropsammicola sp. nov.

Fig 7. Behavior of Diogenes heteropsammicola sp. nov.
A–C, sequence of behaviors to recover from an overturned to upright position in which the hermit crab leans out of the overturned coral (A), grasps the bottom with its ambulatory legs and left cheliped (B), and turns the coral upright using the pleon (C); D–F, sequence of behaviors to overcome burial in sediment, whereby the buried hermit crab (D) pushes away the sediment using its chelipeds and ambulatory legs (E), and then crawls away (F). 

Remarks: Diogenes heteropsammicola sp. nov. belongs to the D. edwardsii species group because of the intercalary rostriform process being smooth on the lateral margins, the antennal peduncle distinctly overreaching the distal corneal margin, and the antennal flagellum bearing a pair of long setae on the distal margin of each article ventrally. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species in this group by its exceedingly slender chelipeds and ambulatory legs, its symmetrical telson, red and white coloration, and the unique symbiotic habit with solitary corals.

Etymology: The new species is named after its mutualistic relationship with the solitary scleractinian corals of the genera Heteropsammia, keeping in mind that this hermit crab is also associated with Heterocyathus corals.

Distribution: At present, known only from Oshima Strait, between Kakeroma Island and Amami-Oshima Island, Kagoshima, Japan, depths of 60–80 m, and Ikomo Bay, western coast of Kakeroma Island, depth of 31 m.

Momoko Igawa and Makoto Kato. 2017. A New Species of Hermit Crab, Diogenes heteropsammicola (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura, Diogenidae), Replaces A Mutualistic Sipunculan in A Walking Coral Symbiosis. PLoS ONE. 12(9); e0184311.  DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0184311

New hermit crab uses live coral as its home


[Botany • 2017] Gelidocalamus xunwuensis • A New Species (Poaceae, Bambusoideae) from southeastern Jiangxi, China

Gelidocalamus xunwuensis  W.G.Zhang & G.Y.Yang

Gelidocalamus xunwuensis W.G.Zhang & G.Y.Yang, a new species collected from Xunwu County of Jiangxi Province in China, is described and illustrated. The new species is similar to G. stellatus in the habit, but differs by internodes sparsely hairy with granuliferous warts, culm sheath stiffly hairy, culm sheath blade broadly lanceolate to narrowly triangular, each node with a ring of appressed trichomes below, foliage leaves broadly lanceolate to narrowly oblong, and new shoots occurring in late October.

Keywords: Arundinarieae, Bambusoideae, bamboo, leaf epidermis, SEM, taxonomy

Figure 4. Gelidocalamus xunwuensis.
A habitat plants B new shoot CL detailed characters, show branch and branch sheath (CD), transection of culm and pith-cavity (E), culm and its leaf sheath (FJ), buds (K) and foliage leaf (L). Scale bar: 5 cm (A–D, F, L), 5 mm (E, G–K).

Gelidocalamus xunwuensis W.G.Zhang & G.Y.Yang, sp. nov.

Diagnosis:  Similar to G. stellatus Wen (1982: 22) in the habit and branch, but differs by culms sparsely hairy (early period) with granuliferous warts (adult or later period), each node with a ring of fulvous appressed trichomes below, culm leaf sheath densely hispidulous with a blade broadly lanceolate and 3–5–paired oral setae, branch sheath glabrous, foliage leaves broadly lanceolate to narrowly oblong, and new shoots late October.

Etymology:  The species epithet xunwuensis refers to the locality of the type specimen: Xunwu County, Jiangxi, China.

Distribution and habitat:  Gelidocalamus xunwuensis occurs under evergreen broad-leaved forests, along ravine, and roadsides at elev. ca. 400–600 m. It grows together with Castanopsis kawakamii Hay., Dicranopteris pedata (Houtt.) Nakaike, Gnetum parvifolium (Warb.) C. Y. Cheng & Chun, Eurya chinensis R. Br., Semiliquidambar cathayensis H. T. Chang, and Ormosia semicastrata Hance. Gelidocalamus xunwuensis is currently known from only one small populations (less than 100 culms) in the southern China.

 Wen-Gen Zhang, Xue-Nan Ji, Yu-Guang Liu, Wei-Jian Li and Guang-Yao Yang. 2017. Gelidocalamus xunwuensis (Poaceae, Bambusoideae), A New Species from southeastern Jiangxi, China. PhytoKeys. 85: 59-67.  DOI:  10.3897/phytokeys.85.13804

[Herpetology • 2017] Preliminary Estimation of Home Range Size for Meristogenys orphnocnemis, A Common Bornean Ranid, in An Altered Forest Ecosystem using Radiotelemetry

Meristogenys orphnocnemis (Matsui, 1986)

[upper] Female Meristogenys orphnocnemis showing transmitter and attachment belt.
[lower] Section of stream in SAFE Project experimental site, known as logged forest edge (LFE) stream, where all radiotracking occurred.



 We tracked six female Meristogenys orphnocnemis for 17 ± 4.3 days (11.5–22 days) in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo to determine core area (home range size) and movement patterns. We found that the core usage area was 3351.0 ± 963.4 m2 . Mean distance of each female from the stream during tracking was between 4.9–29.3 m and median distance from the stream for individual females was 4–20 m. Net distance between first and last observation was 80.6 ± 24.5 m, and there was no relationship between number of days tracked and total distance traversed or core area size, nor between body size and core area size, though our sample sizes were likely too small to detect such patterns. We suggest additional radio-tracking to determine differences in movement ecology between sexes and across species, to better predict impacts on anurans from logging and fragmentation in Southeast Asia.

 Key words. behaviour, radio-tracking, frogs, Malaysia

Fig. 1. Section of stream in SAFE Project experimental site, known as logged forest edge (LFE) stream, where all radiotracking occurred.

 Jennifer A. Sheridan, Nicolas Rakotopare and Rachel Mebberson. 2017. Preliminary Estimation of Home Range Size for Meristogenys orphnocnemis, A Common Bornean Ranid, in An Altered Forest Ecosystem using Radiotelemetry. RAFFLES BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGY65; 539–544. 


[Mammalogy • 2017] Murina hkakaboraziensis • A New Species of Murina (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from the Hkakabo Razi Landscape, Sub-Himalayan Forests of northern Myanmar

Murina hkakaboraziensis
Soisook, Thaw, Kyaw, Oo, Pimsai, Suarez-Rubio & Renner, 2017

ค้างคาวจมูกหลอดคากาโบราซี || Hkakabo Razi Tube-nosed Bat || DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4320.1.9


A new species of Murina of the suilla-type is described from the Hkakabo Razi Landscape, Kachin, Upper Myanmar, an area that is currently being nominated as a World Heritage Site. The new species is a small vespertilionid, with a forearm length of 29.6 mm, and is very similar to M. kontumensis, which was recently described from Vietnam. However, it is distinguishable by a combination of external and craniodental morphology and genetics. The DNA Barcode reveals that the new species clusters sisterly to M. kontumensis but with a genetic distance of 11.5%. A single known specimen of the new species was collected from a lowland forest area in the plains of the Hkakabo Razi landscape, south-eastern Himalaya. Additional information on ecology, echolocation, and conservation are included. The high cryptic diversity of the genus Murina in Southeast Asia, as well as the Hkakabo Razi Landscape being a bat diversity hotspot, is highlighted.

Keywords:  Mammalia, cryptic species, Hkakabo Razi, Myanmar, new species, Southeast Asia

FIGURE 1. The appearance of the face, ear and pelage (a), dorsal pelage (b), and ventral pelage (c) of Murina hkakaboraziensis sp. nov., ♂PS160218.6, holotype, from Kachin, Myanmar.

Murina hkakaboraziensis sp. nov. 

Etymology. The species is named after the Hkakabo Razi Landscape, where the only known specimen was collected. The proposed English name is ‘Hkakabo Razi Tube-nosed Bat

Ecology and distribution. The new species, M. hkakaboraziensis sp. nov., was collected in a mist net set at the edge of a lowland semi-evergreen forest at the transition zone to an open space grassland, which undergoes an annual burn (Fig. 5). The new species was the only bat captured in the mist net. However, on the same night, four other insectivorous bats, Rhinolophus affinis, R. pusillus, Aselliscus stoliczkanus and Hipposideros pomona were captured in nearby mist nets and harp traps. Four other vespertilionids, M. cyclotis, M. feae, M. cf. eleryi, Kerivoula hardwickii, and K. furva were also captured in the same area on other nights. Currently, the new species is only known from the holotype collected from the type locality in the Hkakabo Razi Landscape, Kachin, northern Myanmar.

The discovery of Murina hkakaboraziensis sp. nov., as well as a recently described Kerivoula furva (Kuo et al. 2017), indicates that the Hkakabo Razi Landscape is extremely understudied in terms of bats. Based only on a single scientific expedition in 2016, 37 species of bats were recorded from HRL (P. Soisook, unpublished data) representing approximately 40% of bats in Myanmar. Nevertheless, the 2016 expedition focused only on a limited geographical area and elevation of the HRL. Future surveys to cover the variety of habitats, particularly at the higher elevations, would be of interest. 

The vespertilionid community in the HRL appears to be a geographical connection and a unique mix of species those found widespread in the Indochinese Region (e.g. M. cyclotis, M. feae, M. cf. eleryi, K. kachinensis, K. hardwickii, and K. furva), and those from the Indian Region (e.g. M. cf. jaintiana, M. cf. pluvialis). It indicates the importance of primary forests, and ongoing biogeographical processes of the HRL, underlining the significance of Myanmar’s endeavour to nominate the area as a Natural World Heritage Site. 

FIGURE 5. The edge of a lowland semi-evergreen forest at the transition zone to an open space grassland where the specimen of Murina hkakaboraziensis sp. nov. was captured. Photograph by Sai Sein Lin Oo.

Pipat Soisook, Win Naing Thaw, Myint Kyaw, Sai Sein Lin Oo, Awatsaya Pimsai, Marcela Suarez-Rubio and Swen C. Renner. 2017. A New Species of Murina (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from sub-Himalayan Forests of northern Myanmar.   Zootaxa. 4320(1); 159–172. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4320.1.9
Hao-Chih Kuo, Pipat Soisook, Ying-Yi Ho, Gabor Csorba, Chun-Neng Wang and Stephen J. Rossiter. 2017. A Taxonomic Revision of the Kerivoula hardwickii complex (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) with the Description of A New Species.   Acta Chiropterologica. 19(1); 19-39.  DOI: 10.3161/15081109ACC2017.19.1.002


Friday, September 22, 2017

[Herpetology • 2017] Phylogenetic Systematics of Dart-Poison Frogs and Their Relatives Revisited (Anura: Dendrobatoidea)

Grant, Rada, Anganoy-Criollo, et al., 2017.
South American Journal of Herpetology. 12(s1) 

Despite the impressive growth of knowledge on the phylogenetic systematics of dart-poison frogs and their relatives (Dendrobatoidea) over the past decade, many problems remain to be addressed. We analyzed up to 189 phenomic characters (morphology, behavior, defensive chemicals) and 15 mitochondrial and nuclear loci scored for 564 dendrobatoid and outgroup terminals, including 76 newly sequenced terminals and > 20 previously unanalyzed species, using tree-alignment and the parsimony optimality criterion in the program POY v.5.1.1 and additional analyses of the implied alignment using TNT v.1.5. Even though data coverage was highly heterogeneous, the strict consensus of 639 optimal trees is highly resolved and we detected only one instance of wildcard behavior involving a small clade of outgroup species. The monophyly of the median lingual process (MLP) possessing genus Anomaloglossus is decisively refuted, with the cis-Andean species being sister to Rheobates within Aromobatidae and the trans-Andean species nested within Hyloxalinae, implying two independent origins of the structure in Dendrobatoidea. Although this result was unexpected, it is not surprising given that the MLP evolved at least five times in Asian and African ranoids, including Arthroleptidae, Dicroglossidae, Mantellidae, and Rhacophoridae and either once in the most recent common ancestor of the massive clade Victoranura followed by independent losses or multiple times within component lineages. We restrict Anomaloglossus to the cis-Andean MLP-possessing species, describe a new genus for the trans-Andean MLP-possessing species, and resurrect Paruwrobates for its sister group, which includes Dendrobates andinus (formerly Ameerega), D. erythromos (formerly Hyloxalus and, until recently, Ameerega), and Prostherapis whymperi (formerly Hyloxalus). We also transfer Dendrobates maculatus from Ameerega to Epipedobates, making Ameerega an exclusively cis-Andean group. We describe two new species of the trans-Andean MLP-possessing genus—one from Cerro Tacarcuna, near the Colombo-Panamanian border, and the other from 800–900 m elevation on the western versant of the Colombian Cordillera Occidental (Cauca Department)—bringing the total number of species in the genus to seven. The discrete, round, white to yellowish-brown dots found on the venter of the new species from Cerro Tacarcuna and at least one other trans-Andean MLP-possessing species are formed by large, ellipsoid, densely distributed (up to 80 glands/mm) granular glands. Although specimens of the new species from Cerro Tacarcuna exuded a noxious milky substance when handled, lipophilic alkaloids were not detected. In addition to the unexpected placement of the trans-Andean MLP-possessing species, major findings include the unexpected placement of Colostethus ruthveni and its undescribed sister species (the “C.” ruthveni group) within Dendrobatinae as sister of the newly recognized tribe Dendrobatini (all dendrobatines except Phyllobates and the “C.” ruthveni group). We describe a new genus for C. argyrogaster and C. fugax to remedy the paraphyly of Colostethus caused by the placement of those species as sister to Ameerega. Our evidence rejects the sister group relationship of Dendrobates + Oophaga in favor of Dendrobates + Adelphobates, which is consistent with their uniquely low diploid chromosome number of 2n = 18 (2n = 20 in Oophaga). With the exception of Anomaloglossus and Colostethus, all other genera are monophyletic. We recognize several monophyletic species groups—including the Atlantic Forest, trans-Andean, and 22-chromosome groups within Allobates, the An. stepheni, An. megacephalus, and An. beebei groups in Anomaloglossus, the C. latinasus (formed by the C. inguinalis and C. latinasus clades) and C. fraterdanieli groups within Colostethus, and the Am. braccata and Am. rubriventris groups within Ameerega—identify unambiguously optimized phenomic synapomorphies, and summarize patterns in the evolution of the diploid chromosome number, swelling of Finger IV in males, relative length of Fingers II and III, length of Finger V, and testicular and intestinal pigmentation. Finally, we address criticisms of the current taxonomy of Neotropical poison frogs and their relatives, concluding that they are either overstated, misguided, or false, and that the current system of names better communicates knowledge of the diversity of these frogs. Our results highlight the importance of increased taxon sampling, and we conclude by identifying key species to include in future phylogenetic analyses.

Keywords: Andes, Aromobatidae, Chocó, Dendrobatidae, Median lingual process, New genus, New species, Phylogeny, Total evidence


Figure 10(A): Juvenile female Ectopoglossus saxatilis sp. nov. photographed with the assistance of a camera-mounted flash (IAvH 14614, 18.3 mm SVL; photos: M. Rada). .

Ectopoglossus gen. nov.
Type species. Ectopoglossus saxatilis sp. nov.
Immediately more inclusive taxon. Hyloxalinae Grant et al., 2006.
Sister group. Paruwrobates Bauer, 1994.

Content (7 species). Ectopoglossus absconditus sp. nov., Eastralogaster (Myers et al., 2012) comb. nov., Eatopoglossus (Grant et al., 1997) comb. nov., Econfusus (Myers and Grant, 2009) comb.  nov., Eisthminus (Myers et  al., 2012) comb.  nov., Elacrimosus (Myers, 1991) comb. nov., and Esaxatilis sp. nov.

Etymology. Ectopoglossus gen. nov. (gender masculine) is derived from the Greek ektopos, meaning away or out of a place (ek- “out”  + topos “place”), and glossa, meaning tongue, in reference to the geographically and phylogenetically ectopic distribution of this median lingual process-possessing clade.

Ectopoglossus absconditus sp. nov.

Etymology. The specific epithet is the Latin absconditus, hidden, in reference to this species being hidden in plain site, abscondita in campo visum, for nearly 80 years. The type specimens were collected in 1938 and 1939 and lay ensconced in the KU amphibian collection until finally being “discovered” almost 80 years later when TG examined the contents of a jar labeled “Colostethus  sp.” that contained this and several other species of dendrobatids. To our knowledge the species has not been collected again, although biological surveys in the region have been limited in recent decades due to armed conflict.

Ectopoglossus saxatilis sp. nov. 
Etymology. The specific epithet is Latin and means “found among rocks” in reference to the streamside habitat of the species.

Taran Grant, Marco Rada, Marvin Anganoy-Criollo, Abel Batista, Pedro Henrique Dias, Adriana Moriguchi Jeckel, Denis Jacob Machado and José Vicente Rueda-Almonacid. 2017. Phylogenetic Systematics of Dart-Poison Frogs and Their Relatives Revisited (Anura: Dendrobatoidea). South American Journal of Herpetology. 12(s1); S1-S90. DOI:  10.2994/SAJH-D-17-00017.1